Policy responses for Finland - HSRM

Finland


Policy responses for Finland

6. Measures in other sectors

6.1 Measures in other sectors

Many MEASURES IN OTHER SECTORS beyond the immediate scope of the health system are being taken to prevent further spread of the virus. This section contains information on many of these areas, including border and travel restrictions and economic and fiscal measures, among others.

Border and mobility restrictions

Due to the pandemic, travel on Finland’s external borders has been restricted.(1) Measures have been put in place to restrict passenger traffic at Finnish external borders of March 19th, resuming internal border control in Finland’s internal border and restricting passenger traffic.(2) Finnish citizens’ return home has been guaranteed, as is essential commuter traffic and goods traffic.(3) Airports were closed bar three key airports (Helsinki-Vantaa, Turku, Maarianhamina) on March 19th.(4) 

On March 27, the measures were strengthened by guiding people at the airport home or into quarantine. From then on, individuals arriving in Finland from abroad were required to fill in a form assessing their situation already at the border control stage. Based on the information provided in the form, the person will either be instructed on making their way home or directed to a health checkpoint or a service point for making transport arrangements. People arriving at the airport as of March 27th or the harbour as of April 2nd are not allowed to leave using public transport, but they can leave using their own car. If a returning traveller does not have their own vehicle and is unable to arrange transport home, a charter bus or taxi may be provided.(5,6)
      
Since March 22 2020 crossing the border has only been allowed for Northern employment-related mobility between Finland and Sweden and Finland and Norway. Other borders have been closed for commuters. Working in Finland has not been forbidden, but 14 days of quarantine in Finland is required before work can be resumed.(7) On March 30th, the Government also announced that due to the development of the epidemic in Sweden, the Government will begin preparing tighter limits to traffic at the national borders in the north and west, and to terminate the carriage of passengers via sea transport.

While international passenger travel has been restricted due to the pandemic, goods and freight transport has been supported in various ways. NESA has launched financial support measures to secure the flows of goods that are important to the security of supply from Finland to Sweden and the Baltic countries and, through them, to Central Europe. Transport companies will continue to pay shipping companies for the journeys aboard ships as usual. In addition to this, the Government plans to start paying financial aid to shipping companies to cover the difference between income from cargo transport and the income level required for economically viable operation. The aim is to secure cargo transport until the situation returns to normal. NESA is prepared to spend €45 million on measures to support ferries operating under the Finnish, Swedish and Estonian flags.

For inland travels, the Emergency Powers Act has been used to put in force strong travel restrictions limiting all but extremely necessary traveling between the Uusimaa (capital) region and other regions in Finland. On March 27, the Government submitted to the Parliament decrees concerning the restrictions of movement to and from the Uusimaa region.(8) The movement restrictions entered into force on March 28 and remained in force until April 15, 2020. Restrictions did not apply if movement is necessary for official activities, travel for work, for studies or in connection with a societal position of trust, the performance of military service or any other statutory obligation, or the need for care, risk of death or death of a family member, the right of access to a child, or for any other similar compelling personal reason. The lockdown of the Uusimaa region was taken down on 15th April because of the lack of legal foundation to continue it. The powers provided under section 118 of the Emergency Powers Act may be exercised only if it is necessary to do so. When the travel restrictions entered into force COVID-19 incidence in the region of Uusimaa was increasing significantly faster than in the rest of the country. While Uusimaa still has the highest number of COVID-19 cases, the gap with the rest of the country has narrowed. (17) However, the Government continues to recommend that all unnecessary travel, such as leisure travel, be avoided also within Finland.

The Defence Forces were called to assist police with border checks between the Uusimaa region and the rest of the country.(9) The Defence Forces support the police with 40 professional soldiers and 750 conscripts. According to the law, conscripts may be used for certain executive assistance tasks, including traffic control and isolating a location or an area. Conscripts cannot participate in dangerous tasks while providing support to other authorities. In addition to the Police, the Defence Forces is also supporting other authorities. Military has provided e.g. assistance to the Border Guard and Ministry for Foreign Affairs.

On April 7th 2020 the Government agreed on further reductions of movement in the common travel-to-work area along the borders with Sweden and Norway. Only strictly necessary travel to work will be allowed, and employees must carry a certificate from their employer stating that the work is essential. Finns working in Sweden and Norway in the areas along the Finnish border must stay under quarantine-like conditions when they are in the territory of Finland. As an exception to the rule, employees may continue to travel to work if they comply with this condition and follow the quarantine guidelines. (16)
On April 7 2020 it was also stated that persons arriving across internal borders to Finland are obliged to remain under quarantine-like conditions for 14 days from their last entry to Finland. (16)

On May 4 the Government decided that as of 14 May 2020, the statutory restrictions on border traffic will be lifted in cross-border traffic across the Schengen internal borders by allowing employment or commission-related commuting and other essential traffic. For the time being, recreational travel abroad is not recommended, and the travel advice issued by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs will be extended accordingly. The Ministry of the Interior will draft more specific guidelines on the gradual opening of border traffic. Finland considers it important that the lifting of the restrictions on border traffic be coordinated at the EU level.

On 28 May the MSAH and the Government announced that recommendations on mobility and travel recommendations for the summer are under preparation. It was said that the recommendation on avoiding travel outside Finland is still valid. However, travel into Finland is hoped to be gradually allowed. Travel across borders was allowed for work-related travel more openly across Schengen borders on 14th of May for work as well as return and necessary mobility was broadened in Schengen borders, otherwise restrictions have been temporarily extended until 14th of June (28). Estonia allows visitors from 1st June onwards on the ground of epidemic situation (incidence below 15/100.000) in countries (29). Further debate has concerned the relevance of epidemic situation between countries, in particular, between Sweden and other Nordic countries, in particular the closure of border between Finland and Norway. On 29th of May Government moved away from restrictions in internal travel while reminding health and safety precautions (30). Further guidance on mobility was given on 11th of June, when government removed restrictions on internal border control for some countries,  but kept external control until 14th of July for Russia and third countries. Internal border restrictions and quarantine requirements were removed from 15th of June for Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. (31)

On June 23, the Government decided that as of July 13 the internal border control and restrictions on traffic between Finland and countries where the incidence of COVID-19 is similar to that in Norway, Denmark, Iceland and the Baltic countries will stop. At present, the limit incidence is a maximum of eight per 100,000 persons in the previous 14 days. The final decision will be made on July 10. Within the EU, based on the current epidemiological situation,  internal border control and travel restrictions would continue between Finland and the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal, Poland, France, Sweden and the Czech Republic. (32)

On July 8, the Government agreed that as of July 13 the restriction on traffic at the internal borders between Finland and countries where the coronavirus incidence is at maximum eight new cases per 100,000 persons in the previous 14 days. Based on the epidemiological assessment, the border control was lifted between Finland and most countries belonging to the Schengen area except the Czech Republic, France, Luxembourg, Poland, Spain and Sweden. Of non-Schengen countries, as well as the United Kingdom Andorra, Monaco and the Vatican, the travelling restrictions continued between Finland and Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, the United Kingdom and Monaco. It was also decided that Finland applies the EU recommendation (“green list”) of countries on the lifting of restrictions on border traffic for non-EU countries if the number of new corona infections in the country does not exceed 8 per 100,000 persons in the previous 14 days. The travel restrictions were decided to be reviewed every two weeks. (34)

Based on the changed epidemiological situation, on July 20, the Government decided to reinstate border control for traffic between Finland and Austria Slovenia and Switzerland as of July 27. The Government also updated the list of restrictions for non-Schengen and non-EU countries and decided to permit passenger traffic at all ports operating at border crossing points. (35).

On 26th August THL released “a traffic light model” to help the public evaluate whether one could visit a country without quarantine on arrival.  The model is not intended to replace Government instructions and decisions on travel restrictions. The model separates countries according to the incidence of Covid-19 per 100 000 people, to green, orange and red sectors. In green, no quaratine is needed; in orange and red incidence is higher than in Finland and a 14 day quarantine is recommended on arrival to Finland. In late August, only 4 countries were in the green category for travel.

On 11 September, the Government adopted a resolution on a new operating model for implementing the hybrid strategy to manage COVID-19 in border traffic and travel. The operating model will make it possible to ease restrictions on entry while also combating the pandemic at the borders (37). The Government will now categorise countries and regions with more than 25 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the previous 14 days as areas with a higher incidence.  Apart from certain exceptional categories of persons, a certificate of a negative COVID-19 test taken less than 72 hours prior to arrival would be required for those arriving from higher incidence countries or regions. Persons arriving in the country may be placed in quarantine in accordance with the Communicable Diseases Act. Quarantined persons could end their quarantine upon receiving a negative result from a second COVID-19 test taken 72 hours after entry at the earliest. Persons staying in the country for less than three days will not be required to quarantine or take a second test. The above-mentioned special measures will not be required for persons arriving from countries or regions with a lower incidence (no more than 25 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). Charter and group tours from both EU and Schengen countries and those countries on the EU’s Green List will be permitted even if the country’s incidence exceeds the limit value of 25 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, as long as the tour lasts no more than 72 hours. (37)

To ease the conditions for work and other daily interaction between border communities, travel without a test certificate or quarantine requirement will be permitted at the northern land border and in ferry and air traffic to Estonia and Sweden, as long as the regional disease situation remains roughly equivalent, regardless of the incidence rate in the countries. In the case of other passengers, the health authorities will carry out targeted inspections and testing based on their risk assessment. (37)

As an exception to the requirements set by the new model or the transitional model, special groups, such as representatives of culture, sports and business life, may be approved for entry for justifiable reasons. These reasons primarily include carrying out tasks necessary to secure the recovery, new growth or long-term operating conditions of a certain sector. (37)

Economy

Among the first measures due to pandemic the Ministry of Finance established on March 12 a special group on fiscal measures which included permanent secretaries and preparedness directors from the Prime Minister’s Office, Ministry of Finance and four other ministries. To support business sector the Government announced several measures on March 16, which included doubling financing of small to medium enterprises from €2 billion to €4.2 billion, increasing flexibility of enterprise tax payments and employer payments, and additional support of €30 million to creative and travel sectors. (9) The Government also invited trade unions and employer organisations to propose measures to support the position of entrepreneurs and employees, in order to avoid bankruptcies. According to that proposal, the Government decided to implement several measures, such as a temporary reduction and postponement for the employers’ pension insurance contribution and an increase in flexibility for companies to lay off their employees.

The support package intended to safeguard the private sector business already given on March was increased by approximately EUR 1 billion.  An increase of approximately EUR 1.1 billion is proposed in total for the central government’s share of the earnings-related component of unemployment benefit and job alternation compensation, and of the basic security component of unemployment benefit. The increase in job losses and lay-offs account for EUR 794 million of the total increase. To expedite the processing of benefit applications, EUR 20 million is allocated to support the operations of the unemployment funds. (19)

As the first step to ease the difficulties faced by the municipalities, the Government allocates EUR 547 million to compensate for the loss of municipal income tax revenue in 2020. Besides the decisions already made, the Government is also preparing measures to support the rapid recovery of the economy after the crisis, and these will be presented in a supplementary budget proposal in May. Already before the COVID-19 crisis, the Ministry of Finance considered that rising social and health care expenditures are risking the financial balance of several municipalities. Increasing costs and decreasing tax revenues related to the pandemic are expected to further negatively affect the financial position of the municipalities. Municipalities will face significant financial difficulties as a result of the coronavirus crisis and the Government is preparing a municipal support package for the May supplementary budget proposal. It has been estimated to amount to a minimum of EUR 1 billion. (19)

The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment and the Ministry of Finance appointed a working group on April 1 2020 to prepare an expert assessment of the impact of the coronavirus crisis and of the measures that can be used to limit the damage to the Finnish economy. The working group will also explore measures that could help to get Finland back on track towards sustainable growth, high employment and sustainable public finances after the crisis. The working group is required to complete its report by 1 May 2020.(18)

The Government has decided to support companies through multiple channels which includes the business development funding from Finvera Business Finland, regional Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment (ELY Centres), and Finnish Industry Investment. In addition, support to sole entrepreneurs is available from municipalities. The state owned financing company Finnvera has extended its guarantees for bank loans for companies by €10 billion and the state owned Finnish Industry Investment Ltd Tesi is launching a special funding programme for medium-sized enterprises. By early May, Business Finland and ELY Centres had granted close €400 million in total to development projects proposed by companies. (21) However, a challenge for supporting businesses suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic has that the Finnish state has no existing organisation that could provide emergency financing. The Government has prepared a proposal on support to restaurants for re-employment and compensation for imposed restrictions due COVID-19. (22) Altogether the planned support amounts €124 million and it tends to favour smaller companies. Stakeholders has criticised the support model which will finally be decided by the Parliament. The Government is also preparing a proposal on general support for businesses afflicted by the pandemic. The proposal is waited to be presented by mid-May.

On May 8, the Government published a report by the working group nominated to assess the economic impact of the coronavirus crisis and the measures to reduce the damage to the economy and to restore Finland after the crisis to a path of sustainable growth.(23, 24)  The group comprised independent economic experts and academics. The report presented a three-stage economic strategy for dealing with the impact of coronavirus crisis. According to the Group at the first stage, the aim is to reduce the immediate adverse effects associated with the restrictive measures and the public fear related to the epidemic, focusing above all on the ability of businesses to function. At the second stage the economy needs a substantial stimulus and finally, when growth returns, the economic damage needs to be repaired and public finances consolidated. For supporting businesses, the Group suggested a launch of a general system supporting companies in all sectors targeted at small- and medium-sized companies. After the acute measure, the Government financial policies should continue expansionary with budgets including public investments and measures reinforcing productivity. While the measures to tackle the economic impact of coronavirus will weaken the balance of the Government finances, in the longer run there is a need for substantial adjustments through reducing expenditure and/or raising taxes.  According to the Group the minimum extent of the adjustment is 3-4% of GDP which could stabilise Finland’s government debt to GDP level below 90% in the 2020s (instead of the current 60%).
Following the proposal of the expert group, in May 13 2020, the Government decided to propose a new form of support to companies that have experienced a marked decrease in turnover due to the coronavirus epidemic, and have costs that are difficult to adjust. The exact turnover decrease required to be eligible for support and the levels of compensation will be determined as the preparations proceed. (25.)

On 20th of May the Ministerial Committee on Economic Policy noted that the economy is facing an exceptional downturn and that the current circumstances constitute an exceptional situation as defined in the Government Programme. The Ministerial Committee on Economic Policy therefore supported the Government’s introduction of the exceptional situation mechanism in line with the Government Programme. The Programme includes a mechanism that can be activated in the event of an exceptional economic situation. The mechanism allows for an increase of up to EUR 1 billion in one-off expenditure. The conclusion was based on the expert assessment done by the Bank of Finland and three research institutes (the Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, the Labour Institute for Economic Research, and Pellervo Economic Research Institute). Based on these assessments and its own analysis of the situation, the Ministry of Finance has determined that Finland is facing an exceptional cyclical downturn as defined in the Government Programme, which speaks in favour of introducing the exceptional situation mechanism in line with the Government Programme. (26)

Social and income support

Due to the pandemic, the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) adopted a number of measures, including allowing employer sponsored rehabilitation courses to be cancelled; interpreters for the disabled can be used at a distance; and subsides for school or university meals to be sold as take-out meals or home deliveries. The COVID-19 epidemic is also considered valid reason for insufficient progress in studies for those receiving study support. On March 20, Kela announced that parental benefits can be paid without a mother’s postnatal physical examination certificate (previously a condition for the commencement of parental leave payments).

On March 24, the Government proposed changes to unemployment insurance. These changes included removing the five-day self-payment period; reducing need for employment prior to unemployment from 26 weeks to 13 weeks; and decreeing that the unemployment period will not be spent during furlough. The Government has provided access to unemployment insurance regardless of form of entrepreneurship in order to support entrepreneurs. In addition, solo entrepreneurs will be able to apply for financing from municipalities to address difficulties caused by the coronavirus.(11) The state is able to provide this support in full by allocating €100 million in the supplementary budget for 2020.

On April 8th2020 the Government proposed that those absent from work with no pay due to the coronavirus epidemic could apply for temporary support. The support could be paid to a parent who cares for children at home when they are not attending early childhood education and care or basic education due to the restrictions. The support would be applicable only in situations where a child is entitled to contact teaching even in exceptional circumstances. The benefit would also be available to persons arriving in Finland from abroad who have been placed in quarantine-like conditions to combat the pandemic and are therefore away from work without pay. The amount of the support would be the same as the minimum parental allowance, i.e. EUR 28.94 per weekday (EUR 723.50 per month). The support would be paid for the duration of the restrictions, as from 16 March. The support could be applied for retroactively. The total amount of funds reserved for this support would be EUR 94 million. (19.)

The Finnish social security agency reports weekly on the COVID—19 impact on income support and other welfare support applications. They conclude that key welfare benefit applications that support income have increased during the COVID-19 epidemic. (27). 

On June 17, the Government decided to propose a law on temporary compensation to basic social assistance clients due to COVID-19 epidemic. From September to December 2020 an additional temporary compensation of €75 per person per month would be granted for those who have received basic social assistance during the period of restrictions, in case they continue to receive basic social assistance in autumn 2020. (33)

In contrast to expectations, according to research by Finnish Occupational Health Institute wellbeing at work actually improved on average during the spring 2020 (34)

Prisons

On March 13th, the Criminal Sanctions Agency closed the doors of all open prison units. The Central Administration of the Agency advised all prison unit directors to consider whether to arrange all granted visits and to put into practice or grant the prisoners’ permissions under the Imprisonment Act, such as prison leaves, study permissions, and permissions for civilian work. The unit management makes the decisions concerning their unit and the individuals there. The enforcement of all new prison sentences are postponed from early April. Short sentences were postponed already from 18th March. Prison occupancy rates are currently high, which is a risk factor for the spread of the coronavirus epidemic. With the changes, prison population can be temporarily reduced by a total of 300-400 prisoners. Transfers from one prison to another are only carried out when they are necessary.(12) 

Other measures

The Finnish Food Authority, which operates under the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, issued guidance in relation to state of emergency and food security on March 19.(13). The guidance included specific directions concerning regulatory activities on food safety, animal husbandry, plant production, rural subsidies and their oversight.

The Ministry of Transport and Communications has provided information on transport.(14) Government has not closed internal transport, but encourages people to stay home seeking to limit numbers of people using public and private transport. Bus companies have constructed on their own initiative measures for protection of drivers. While timetables have been changed and cancellation made, these are due to diminished number of passengers. Government measures can be communicated also via text messages as was the case of the closure of Uusimaa.

The Finnish Competition and Consumer Protection Agency, which operates under the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment has published guidance on consumer protection and cancelled travel on February 27 in Finnish and on March 11 in English.(15)

Several special arrangements based on voluntary action have occurred throughout the country. These include for instance special shopping hours for over 70-year-olds and risk groups in some shops and different types of voluntary, NGO or local government arrangement of shopping services for groceries and medication.

 
Sources:
1. Ministry for Foreign Affairs (14/03/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/ulkoministerio-ala-matkusta-ulkomaill-2 
2. The Finnish Border Guard (18/03/2020)  https://www.raja.fi/current_issues/facts/news_from_the_border_guard/1/0/finnish_border_traffic_to_be_restricted_as_of_19_march_2020_79144 
3. National Emergency Supply Agency (25/03/2020) https://www.huoltovarmuuskeskus.fi/kumipyorarahdin-merikuljetukset-varmistetaan-huoltovarmuuskeskuksen-toimenpitein/
4. The Finnish Border Guard (18/03/2020) https://www.raja.fi/current_issues/facts/news_from_the_border_guard/1/0/finnish_border_traffic_to_be_restricted_as_of_19_march_2020_79144   
5. Finavia (27/03/2020)      https://www.finavia.fi/en/newsroom/2020/free-transportation-home-available-travellers-returning-finland-avoid-using-public     
6. Port of Helsinki (2/4/2020) https://www.portofhelsinki.fi/en/port-helsinki/whats-new/news/coronavirus-instructions-passengers
7. Finnish Government (27/03/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/10616/ulkomailta-saapuvien-kontrolli-tiukentuu
8. Finnish Government (28/03/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/10616/liikkumisrajoitukset-uudellemaalle-voimaan-28-maaliskuuta-2020-klo-00-00
9. The Finnish Defence Forces (28/03/2020) https://puolustusvoimat.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/viranomaisyhteistyolla-turvataan-yhteiskuntaa-poikkeusoloissa
10. Ministry of Finance (12/03/2020) https://vm.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/koronaviruksen-leviamista-rajoitetaan-paattavaisin-toimin
11. Finnish Government (27/03/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/1410877/yksinyrittajat-voivat-hakea-tukea-kunnilta-koronavirustilanteessa
12. Criminal Sanctions Agency (accessed 03/04/2020) https://www.rikosseuraamus.fi/fi/
13. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (accessed 03/04/2020) https://mmm.fi/en/coronavirus
14. Finnish Government (14/03/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/information-on-coronavirus/ministry-of-transport-and-communications
15. Finnish Competitions and Consumer Agency (11/03/2020) https://www.kkv.fi/en/current-issues/news/2020/11.3.2020-coronavirus-information-on-consumer-protection-for-travellers/
16. Finnish Government (07/04/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/10616/hallitus-linjasi-rajaliikenteen-tiukennuksista-ruotsin-ja-norjan-vastaisella-rajalla-ahvenanmaan-sairaanhoito-turvataan 
17. Finnish Government (15/04/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/10616/xx-1?_101_INSTANCE_LZ3RQQ4vvWXR_languageId=en_US 
18. Finnish Government (01/04/2020)  https://vm.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/1410877/selvitysryhma-arvioi-koronakriisin-taloudellisia-vaikutuksia-ja-tieta-takaisin-kestavan-kasvun-uralle
19. Finnish Government (08/04/2020)   https://valtioneuvosto.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/10616/hallitus-paatti-vuoden-2020-toisesta-lisatalousarvioesityksesta-seka-julkisen-talouden-suunnitelmasta-vuosille-2021-2024 
20. Finnish Government (08/04/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/1271139/lisatalousarviossa-varoja-koronaan-liittyviin-suojavarusteisiin-laitteisiin-ja-laakkeisiin-sosiaaliturvaetuuksiin-seka-palkatta-toista-poissa-olevien
21. Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment (07/05/2020)
https://tem.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/tem-n-tilannetietopaketti-kokoaa-yhteen-korona-ajan-tiedot-yrityksista-tyomarkkinoista-ja-palveluista
22. Finnish Government (06/05/2020)
https://vnk.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/ravintoloille-tukea-uudelleentyollistamiseen-ja-hyvitysta-toiminnan-rajoittamisesta
23. Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment and Ministry of Finance (May 8, 2020) Vihriälä working group: Major adjustment package needed for consolidating public finances after business support phase and economic stimulus. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/10623/yritystukivaiheen-ja-elvytyksen-jalkeen-tarvitaan-iso-sopeutuspaketti-julkisen-talouden-vakauttamiseksi?_101_INSTANCE_LZ3RQQ4vvWXR_languageId=en_US
24. Vihriälä V, Holmström B, Korkman S, Uusitalo R. Talouspolitiikan strategia koronakriisissä. Valtioneuvoston julkaisuja 2020:13. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-287-898-4
25. Finnish Government (14/05/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/1410877/hallitus-linjasi-yrityksille-uusi-kustannustuki-koronaviruksen-vuoksi
26. Finnish Government (20/05/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/10616/talouspoliittinen-ministerivaliokunta-puoltaa-poikkeusolojen-mekanismin-kayttoonottoa
27. Finnish social security agency (1/6/2020). https://www.kela.fi/korona-tietopaketti
28. Ministry of Internal Affairs. (7/5/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/tyomatkaliikenne-sisarajoilla-sallitaan-ilman-vaatimusta-tyon-valttamattomyydesta?_101_INSTANCE_LZ3RQQ4vvWXR_groupId=1410869
29. Covid-19 and Estonia (04/06/2020) https://www.visitestonia.com/fi/miksi-juuri-viro/covid-19-ja-matkustus-viroon
30. Finnish Government (29/05/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/10616/hallitus-linjasi-kotimaassa-voi-matkailla-kun-noudattaa-terveys-ja-turvallisuusohjeita   https://valtioneuvosto.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/10616/hallitus-linjasi-kotimaassa-voi-matkailla-kun-noudattaa-terveys-ja-turvallisuusohjeita
31. Ministry for Foreign Affairs (11/06/2020) https://stm.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/10616/lahimatkailun-rajoituksia-puretaan-osittain-ulkorajoilla-rajoitukset-pysyvat-ennallaan
32. Government Communications Department (23/06/2020) Government updates policies on border issues, remote working and recommendations for persons over 70 years of age. https://vnk.fi/en/-/government-updates-policies-on-border-issues-remote-working-and-recommendations-for-persons-over-70-years-of-age
33. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (17/6/2020) Government proposes temporary compensation to basic social assistance clients due to epidemic. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/-/1271139/hallitus-esittaa-valiaikaista-epidemiakorvausta-perustoimeentulotuen-asiakkaille 

34. Government updates policies on internal border control and travel restrictions. Press release 481/2020.  Government Communications Department, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Ministry of the Interior, July 8, 2020 https://vnk.fi/en/-/government-updates-policies-on-internal-border-control-and-travel-restrictions
35. Government decides on continuation of restrictions on traffic at internal and external borders. Press release 501/2020. Government Communications Department, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Ministry of the Interior. July 23, 2020 https://vnk.fi/en/-/government-decides-on-continuation-of-restrictions-on-traffic-at-internal-and-external-borders
36. Finnish Occupational Health Institute (12/08/2020) https://www.ttl.fi/koronakevaan-aikana-suomalaisten-tyohyvinvointi-jopa-parani/ 
37. Finnish Government (11/9/2020) https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/-/10616/government-adopts-resolution-on-implementing-the-hybrid-strategy-for-border-traffic-and-travel